The Facial Action Coding System FACS is an internationally recognized, sophisticated research tool that precisely measures the entire spectrum of human facial expressions. FACS has elucidated the physiological presence of emotion with very high levels of reliability. Created in the s by psychologists Paul Ekman and Wallace V.
As you may or may not already know, FACS is an anatomically-based system for exhaustively describing all observable facial movement. Each observable component of facial movement is called an action unit or AU. All facial expressions can be decomposed into their constituent AUs.
Many researchers code muscle movements to learn more about how and why the face moves. They use the Facial Action Coding System which provides them with a technique for the reliable coding and analysis of facial movements and expressions. They indicate which AUs moved to produce the changes observed in the face.
Traditionally a manual coding systemwhich quantifies all possible movements a person can make with his or her face. Recent advances in computer vision have allowed for reliable automated facial action coding. Below you can see the 20 Action Units offered in the most recent version of FaceReader as well as some frequently occurring or difficult action unit combinations. Some images have been zoomed in on the area of interest to explicitly show what muscle movement corresponds to the specific Facial Action Unit.
Facial expression is widely used to evaluate emotional impairment in neuropsychiatric disorders. Unlike facial expression ratings based on categorization of expressions into prototypical emotions happiness, sadness, anger, fear, disgust, etc. However, FACS rating requires extensive training, and is time consuming and subjective thus prone to bias.
Emotion can be defined as any relatively brief conscious experience characterized by intense mental activity and a high degree of pleasure or displeasure. Scientific discourse has drifted to other meanings and there is no consensus on a single definition. Emotion is often intertwined with mood, temperament, personality, disposition, and motivation.
Language: English Spanish French. Research into emotions has increased in recent decades, especially on the subject of recognition of emotions. However, studies of the facial expressions of emotion were compromised by technical problems with visible video analysis and electromyography in experimental settings. These have only recently been overcome.
Every detail on how to use the FACS will be exhaustively explained itself in the Manual, which is and will always represent for a FACS Coder an indispensable guide, to be consulted every times codify facial expressions is necessary. After that, we could focus our attention in codify only the rapid signals emotional or communicative facial expressions. A video of an experimental subject is delivered to a FACS Coder; the subjects face in the foreground has been videotaped.