Surgical or pathological staging if surgery has been performed is done by examining tissue. The TNM staging system examines three key factors to determine the stage of cancer:. A number or the letter X is assigned to each factor.
The type of treatment your cancer care team will recommend depends on the type of anal cancer, where it is, and how far it has spread the stage. This way you can get the best treatment available now and may also get the treatments that are thought to be even better. Anal tumors affecting the anal margin or the perianal skin and not the anal canal are sometimes treated differently from anal canal cancers.
Skip to Content. You will also read general information on surviving the disease. Remember, survival rates depend on several factors.
Learning from others about their experience with anal cancer can be helpful, informative and a great way to feel connected. Read and listen to stories from fellow community members about their experiences with anal cancer. Remember that these anal cancer stories and the treatments described below are those of individual thrivers and may not reflect your experiences and treatment.
Once it's confirmed that you have anal cancer, your doctor may recommend additional tests to determine whether your cancer has spread to your lymph nodes or to other areas of your body. Your doctor uses the information from the procedures to assign your cancer a stage. The stages of anal cancer are indicated using Roman numerals ranging from 0 to IV, with the lowest stages indicating that the cancer is small and confined to the anus.
The anus is the end of the large intestinebelow the rectumthrough which stool solid waste leaves the body. The anus is formed partly from the outer skin layers of the body and partly from the intestine. Two ring-like muscles, called sphincter muscles, open and close the anal opening and let stool pass out of the body.
Anal cancer is a relatively rare malignancy, and a minority of patients present with metastatic disease in the United States. The National Cancer Database NCDB was used to identify factors associated with metastatic disease at presentation and evaluate the role of pelvic radiotherapy in these patients. The NCDB was queried for patients with squamous cell cancer of the anus diagnosed between and
Overview Following clinical evaluation of rectal cancer, the cancer is referred to as Stage IV rectal cancer if the final evaluation shows that the cancer has spread to distant locations in the body, which may include the liver, lungs, bones, or other sites. The potential benefits of receiving cancer treatment must be carefully balanced with the potential risks of receiving cancer treatment. The following is a general overview of the treatment of Stage IV rectal cancer.
Anal cancer is a rare malignancy with approximately 5, new cases diagnosed annually in the United States. As a result of carefully conducted epidemiologic and clinical studies, it is now established that anal cancer is closely associated with human papillomavirus HPV infection. The cure of anal cancer is possible in the majority of patients with preservation of the anal sphincter. This malignancy has been historically treated by abdominoperineal resection, with associated high rates of morbidity and local recurrence.