The term facial palsy generally refers to weakness of the facial muscles, mainly resulting from temporary or permanent damage to the facial nerve. When a facial nerve is either non-functioning or missing, the muscles in the face do not receive the necessary signals in order to function properly. There are different degrees of facial paralysis: sometimes only the lower half of the face is affected, sometimes one whole side of the face is affected and in some cases both sides of the face are affected.
The management of facial paralysis continues to evolve. Understanding the facial nerve anatomy and the different methods of evaluating the degree of facial nerve injury are crucial for successful management. When the facial nerve is transected, direct coaptation leads to the best outcome, followed by interpositional nerve grafting.
Facial nerve 7th cranial nerve palsy is often idiopathic formerly called Bell palsy. Idiopathic facial nerve palsy is sudden, unilateral peripheral facial nerve palsy. Symptoms of facial nerve palsy are hemifacial paresis of the upper and lower face.
Facial nerve disorders can cause weakness on one or both sides of your face. You might lose your facial expressions, and find it difficult to eat, drink and speak clearly. It can also become difficult to close your eye and blink, which can lead to damage to your cornea. It's also known as idiopathic unilateral facial paralysis.
The facial nerve is perhaps the most important nerve system when it comes to function. The facial nerve is responsible for all movement of the face. A damaged nerve at the origin in the brainstem leads to paralysis of the entire left or right side of the face.
Trigeminal neuralgia is extreme pain and muscle spasms in the face. Attacks of intense, electric shock-like facial pain can occur without warning or be triggered by touching specific areas of the face. Although the exact cause of trigeminal neuralgia is not fully understood, a blood vessel is often found compressing the nerve.
Facial nerve paralysis is a common problem that involves the paralysis of any structures innervated by the facial nerve. The pathway of the facial nerve is long and relatively convoluted, so there are a number of causes that may result in facial nerve paralysis. Facial nerve paralysis is characterised by facial weakness, usually only in one side of the face, with other symptoms possibly including loss of tastehyperacusis and decreased salivation and tear secretion.
Three quarters of peripheral FNP are primary and one quarter secondary. The most prevalent causes of secondary FNP are systemic viral infections, trauma, surgery, diabetes, local infections, tumor, immunological disorders, or drugs. The diagnosis of FNP relies upon the presence of typical symptoms and signs, blood chemical investigations, cerebro-spinal-fluid-investigations, X-ray of the scull and mastoid, cerebral MRI, or nerve conduction studies.