Origins of adult normal pressure hydrocephalus

Normal-pressure hydrocephalus NPHalso called communicating hydrocephalus and malresorptive hydrocephalusis a condition in which excess cerebrospinal fluid CSF occurs in the ventriclesand with normal or slightly elevated cerebrospinal fluid pressure. As the fluid builds up, it causes the ventricles to enlarge and the pressure inside the head to increase, compressing surrounding brain tissue and leading to neurological complications. The disease presents in a classic triad of symptoms, which are urinary incontinencedementiaand gait deviations.

Hydrocephalus is a condition in which abnormally widened dilated cerebral spaces in the brain ventricles inhibit the normal flow of cerebrospinal fluid CSF. The cerebrospinal fluid accumulates in the skull and puts pressure on the brain tissue. An enlarged head in infants and increased cerebrospinal fluid pressure are frequent findings but are not necessary for the diagnosis of Hydrocephalus.

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N ormal pressure hydrocephalus NPH is characterized by the clinical triad of gait disturbance, cognitive impairment, and urge urinary incontinence in conjunction with radiographic findings of ventriculomegaly out of proportion to cortical atrophy. However, the identification of patients with NPH most likely to benefit from shunting procedures remains difficult. In an effort to determine what percentage of patients with the clinical triad of NPH have AD, several studies have analyzed cortical brain biopsies obtained from subjects with NPH during placement of CSF shunts. In the present study, we retrospectively reviewed a cohort of patients who underwent shunt placement and had cortical brain biopsies performed by the senior author for presumed NPH over a year period.

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Normal pressure hydrocephalus NPH is a syndrome characterized by the triad of gait disturbance, mental deterioration and urinary incontinence, associated with ventriculomegaly and normal cerebrospinal fluid CSF pressure. The clinical presentation triad may be atypical or incomplete, or mimicked by other diseases, hence the need for supplementary tests, particularly to predict postsurgical outcome, such as CSF tap-tests and computed tomography CT or magnetic resonance imaging MRI. Normal pressure hydrocephalus NPH is a syndrome characterized by the triad of gait disturbance, mental deterioration and urinary incontinence, which are associated with enlargement of the ventricular system and normal cerebrospinal fluid CSF pressure.

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Congenital paediatric and congenital adult hydrocephalus were considered to trace the early descriptions of idiopathic adult hydrocephalus. Through traditional or digital libraries and internet search engines, the historical sources dealing with idiopathic adult hydrocephalus were explored. The research shows that many distinguished physicians through the centuries have contributed to the discovery of idiopathic adult hydrocephalus. Early descriptions of the disorder were related to autopsy studies in the 18th and 19th centuries.

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Idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus iNPH is a highly prevalent condition in the elderly population; however, the underlying pathophysiology in relation to the aging process remains unclear. By tracking the propagation of the low-frequency component of the BOLD signal, extended venous drainage times were observed in the periventricular region of the patients, which was reversed by tap test. Interestingly, the venous drainage time in the periventricular region exhibited an age-related prolongation in the healthy control group.

Visit appliedradiology. Hydrocephalus is a common and important process, a mechanical complication of many different pathologic conditions and a disease process itself. The morphologic features are easily recognizable, but the pathophysiology remains incompletely understood.

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