Internal genu of facial nerve

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A variety of congenital, traumatic, vascular, inflammatory, and neoplastic processes may affect the facial nerve. Prudent use of CT and MR imaging combined with a complete understanding of facial nerve anatomy helps in narrowing the differential diagnosis. The precise anatomic course of the facial nerve must be charted in patients who undergo middle ear surgery.

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If your institution subscribes to this resource, and you don't have a MyAccess Profile, please contact your library's reference desk for information on how to gain access to this resource from off-campus. The facial nerve is directly and indirectly involved in numerous pathological conditions affecting the temporal bone, ranging from infection to neoplasia. In each instance, a solid understanding of its complex anatomy is crucial to the physician's ability to both diagnose and treat disorders of the facial nerve.

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We'll move on now to look at cranial nerves seven through twelve. We'll begin with the seventh and eighth, the facial and vestibulo-cochlear nerves. As we've seen, these two nerves leave the brainstem just below the pons.

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Fibers from the motor division supply the facial mimetic musculature, the stapedius, the stylohyoid, and the posterior belly of the digastric [ 433 ]. In addition, sensation of taste from the anterior two-thirds of the tongue and parasympathetic fibers is carried in a minor root called the nervus intermedius of Wrisberg. Fibers of the motor division arise from the motor facial nucleus, which lies in the reticular formation of the caudal pontine tegmentum, dorsal to the superior olive, medial to the nucleus of the spinal tract of cranial nerve V trigeminal nerveand anterolateral to the nucleus of cranial nerve VI abducens nerve. The facial nucleus is made up of four separate longitudinally oriented cell groups subnuclei that supply specific muscle groups [ 39 ]: a the dorsomedial group to the auricular and occipital muscles, b the intermediate group to the frontalis and corrugator muscles, c the ventromedial group to the platysma, and d the lateral group to the buccinator and buccolabial muscles.

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In this article, we shall look at the anatomical course of the nerve, and the motor, sensory and parasympathetic functions of its terminal branches. The course of the facial nerve is very complex. There are many branches, which transmit a combination of sensory, motor and parasympathetic fibres.

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CN VII is responsible for the movement of the facial muscles. Voluntary facial movements originate along with other motor activity in the precentral gyrus. White matter tracts pass through the internal capsule and cerebral peduncles along with the other corticobulbar fibers.

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NCBI Bookshelf. Dominika Dulak ; Imama A. Authors Dominika Dulak 1 ; Imama A.

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The facial nerve is one of the key cranial nerves with a complex and broad range of functions. Although at first glance it is the motor nerve of facial expression which begins as a trunk and emerges from the parotid gland as five branches see facial nerve branches mnemonicit has taste and parasympathetic fibers that relay in a complex manner. The facial nerve is the only cranial nerve that may show normal post-contrast enhancement, although this applies only to the labyrinthine segment up to the stylomastoid foramen.

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Branchial motor innervation to muscles of facial expression including orbicularis oculi, orbicularis oris, zygomaticus major, levator anguli oris, risorius, depressor anguli oris, mentalis, buccinator, frontalis, occipitalis, corrugator supercilii, and platysmastapedius, stylohyoid, and posterior belly of digastric. Visceral motor parasympathetic innervation to lacrimal gland via greater superficial petrosal nerve; GSPNoral and nasal mucosa via GSPNand submandibular and sublingual glands via chorda tympani. Somatic sensory from external auditory meatus, auricle and retroauricular area.

It emerges from the pons of the brainstemcontrols the muscles of facial expression, and functions in the conveyance of taste sensations from the anterior two-thirds of the tongue. It arises from the brainstem from an area posterior to the cranial nerve VI abducens nerve and anterior to cranial nerve VIII vestibulocochlear nerve. The facial nerve also supplies preganglionic parasympathetic fibers to several head and neck ganglia. The facial and intermediate nerves can be collectively referred to as the nervus intermediofacialis.

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